Santosh Yadav(Automobile Engr.)

The Information About the Latest Technology in Automobile

Cutting Edge Technology that featured in new cars as PRIUS of Toyota

Cutting edge technology

  • Solar Ventilation System* When activated, the Solar Ventilation System can power an internal fan, cooling the car inside while parked in direct sunlight.
    Park in the sun to keep your car cool. Solar panels embedded in the Prius roof run an internal fan which ejects the hot air that can build up inside your car. This means the temperature in your parked car is kept closer to the ambient temperature outside.

    * Solar Ventilation System is only available with the i-Tech™ model onlyOverseas model shown
  • Touch Tracer Display Keep your eyes on the road, not on your wheel - Touch Tracer controls are a world first.
    In the Prius, any control or function you touch on the steering wheel Touch Tracer controls will show up on the dashboard display in front of you. That means you can search for a radio station, control the air conditioning and check your energy consumption without glancing at the wheel.

    Overseas model shown
  • Head Up Display (HUD) The information you need - where you can see it.
    Once only used in jet fighters, a Head Up Display (HUD) is now a standard feature in the Prius. Your speed, the hybrid system indicator, and even navigation information on the i-Tech™ can be projected on the windscreen just below your line of sight. It comes with controls that allow you to adjust the brightness and position of the projected HUD image.
    Head Up Display
  • Multi Information Display Keep an eye on your efficiency. Visualise the way you drive, and how it can impact your fuel usage.
    The Multi Information display combines an energy monitor, a hybrid system indicator and a fuel consumption monitor. Together these three displays provide moment by moment feedback on your fuel efficiency, the car’s power flow and its response to your driving style.

    Overseas model shown
    Multi Information Display
  • Remote Air-Conditioning System* A short burst of air-conditioned cool air, powered by the hybrid battery, provides an instant relief to the cabin temperature.
    In a true world first, turn on the air-conditioning just by pushing the A/C button on your key fob as you approach the Prius. For up to three minutes a burst of cool air will cool the cabin. Best of all, you don’t have to start your car to make it work.

    * i-Tech™ model only
    Remote Air-Conditioning System

 

Latest Features that available in Toyota Prius

Iconic styling

  • Aerodynamics The sleek lines and sweeping roof of the Prius are not just for show - they provide efficiency benefits as well.
    From the front bumper to the rear spoiler, every ridge and corner of the Prius optimises airflow over, under and around the car. The car is designed to slip through the air - saving fuel and emissions. The industry measures aerodynamics by a car's drag co-efficient (Cd). The Prius Cd of 0.25 is among the lowest you'll find for any production car.
    Aerodynamics
  • LED headlamps The Prius has LED headlamps* because of their long life, less power consumption, and higher luminosity.
    Sophisticated and energy efficient, LED (Light-Emitting Diode) headlamps use less energy but produce more light than standard headlamps. They are renowned for their long life cycle (up to 15 years+) and can also help reduce power consumption. Prius is the first ever Toyota vehicle to use LED headlamps.

    * i-Tech™ model only Overseas model shown
  • Ecological trim Prius is the first car in the world to use a plant-based plastic for some interior trim.
    The Toyota-developed Eco-Plastic emits 20% less CO2 than standard plastic over its lifetime. You’ll find trims and scuff boards are made from plant-derived plastic, while sound proofing and the driver’s side seat cushion are made from a combination of recycled materials.
    Ecological plastic
  • Smart entry and start System With smart entry and start you just have to have the key with you to get moving. No more fumbling.
    You can keep your key in your pocket or bag when unlocking and starting your Prius. The car senses the key when you're close enough - so you just need to clasp the driver door to unlock it and tap the power button to start the car.
    Smart start
  • 60:40 split retractable rear seats Drop either rear seat, or both, to create storage space big enough for your bike, board or shopping.
    With 60:40 split retractable rear seats you can get the combo right for whatever cargo you're carrying. Load up with luggage and comfortably seat up to three passengers in the back as well.
    60:40 split retractable rear seats

 

Scorpio 2.6 DX Compare lists




Rs. 8,87,623

Mahindra Scorpio 2.6 DX 8-seater



Rs. 7,54,439

Mahindra Bolero SLX



Rs. 7,61,074

Chevrolet SRV 1.6 SRV



Rs. 7,72,808

Maruti SX4 ZXI



Rs. 7,74,408

Skoda Fabia Ambiente



Rs. 7,76,273

Mitsubishi Lancer 1.5 L Petrol Lx



Rs. 7,87,806

Mahindra Renault Logan DLS 1.5



Rs. 7,89,949

Tata Indigo XL Grand XL - Diesel



Rs. 8,27,247

Hyundai Verna CRDi
Safety Features         
Rear Airbag

Not Available

Not Available

Not Available

Not Available

Not Available

Not Available

Passenger Airbag

Not Available

Not Available

Not Available

Available

yes  

Not Available

Not Available

Not Available

Not Available

Keyless Entry

Not Available

Not Available

Available

Available

Not Available

Available

Available

Not Available

Front Airbag

Not Available

Not Available

Not Available

Not Available

Not Available

Not Available

Driver Airbag

Not Available

Not Available

Not Available

Available

yes  

Not Available

Not Available

Not Available

Not Available

Depowered Airbag

Not Available

Not Available

Not Available

Not Available

Not Available

Not Available

Child Safety Lock

Available

Not Available

Available

Available

yes  

Available

Available

Available

Available

Central Locking

Available

Not Available

Available

Available

yes  

Available

Available

Available

Available

Anti-theft System

Not Available

Not Available

Not Available

Not Available

yes  

Not Available

Not Available

Available

Not Available

Antilock Braking System

Not Available

Not Available

Not Available

Available

yes  

Not Available

Not Available

Not Available

Optional  
Overview         
Variant 2.6 DX 8-seater   SLX   1.6 SRV   ZXI   Ambiente   1.5 L Petrol Lx   DLS 1.5   Grand XL - Diesel   CRDi  
Title Mahindra Scorpio 2.6DX 8-Seater (Diesel) MUV Car   Mahindra Bolero SLX (Diesel) MUV Car   Chevrolet Srv 1.6 Base (Petrol) Hatchback Car   Maruti Sx4 Zxi (Petrol) Sedan Car   Skoda Fabia Ambiente   Mitsubishi Lancer 1.5 L Lx (Petrol) Sedan Car   Mahindra Renault Logan DLS 1.5 (Diesel) Sedan Car   Tata Indigo XL Grand (Diesel) Sedan Car   Hyundai Verna CRDI (Diesel) Sedan Car  
Seating Capacity 8   7   5   5   5   5   5   5   5  
Model Scorpio   Bolero   SRV   SX4   Fabia   Lancer   Renault Logan   Indigo XL   Verna  
Make Mahindra   Mahindra   Chevrolet   Maruti   Skoda   Mitsubishi   Mahindra   Tata   Hyundai  
Number of doors 5   5   4   4   5   4   4   4   4  
Body Type SUV   SUV   Hatchback   Sedan   Hatchback   Sedan   Sedan   Sedan   Sedan  
Fuel Efficiency         
Highway Mileage 13.4 kmpl  12.4 kmpl  12.8 kmpl  14.9 kmpl  14.9 kmpl  19.2 kmpl  15.9 kmpl  16.8 kmpl 
Fuel Type Diesel   Diesel   Petrol   Petrol   Diesel   Petrol   Diesel   Diesel   Diesel  
Fuel Grade
Fuel Capacity 53 litre  60 litre  60 litre  50 litre  50 litre  50 litre  42 litre  45 litre 
City Mileage 9.7 kmpl  9.4 kmpl  9.7 kmpl  9.7 kmpl  9.6 kmpl  13.8 kmpl  11 kmpl  12.6 kmpl 
Comfort Features         
Sun Roof

Not Available

Not Available

Not Available

Not Available

no  

Not Available

Not Available

Not Available

Not Available

Power Windows

Available

Not Available

Available

Available

yes  

Available

Available

Available

Available

Power Seat

Not Available

Not Available

Not Available

Not Available

yes  

Not Available

Not Available

Available

Not Available

Power Mirrors

Not Available

Not Available

Available

Available

Available

Available

Available

Not Available

Power Door Locks

Not Available

Not Available

Not Available

Available

yes  

Available

Available

Available

Not Available

Navigation

Not Available

Not Available

Not Available

Available

Not Available

Not Available

Not Available

Not Available

Moon Roof

Not Available

Not Available

Not Available

Not Available

no  

Not Available

Not Available

Not Available

Not Available

Leather Seats

Not Available

Not Available

Not Available

Optional   no  

Not Available

Not Available

Available

Not Available

driverSeatAdjust                  
Cruise
CD Player

Not Available

Not Available

Available

Available

yes  

Not Available

Available

Available

Not Available

Cassette Player

Not Available

Not Available

Available

Not Available

no  

Available

Not Available

Not Available

Not Available

AM / FM Radio

Not Available

Available

Not Available

Available

yes  

Available

Available

Available

Not Available

Air-Conditioning

Available

Not Available

Available

Available

yes  

Available

Available

Available

Available

Engine Parameters         
No. Of Valves 8   8   16   16   2   12   8   16   16  
Valve Gear Operation Pushrod   DOHC   DOHC   SOHC   SOHC   SOHC   SOHC   DOHC  
Torque 277.52@2200 Nm@rpm  180@1440 Nm@rpm  139.9@4500-6500 Nm@rpm  145@4200 Nm@rpm  155Nm@1600-2800rpm Nm@rpm  132.39@3300 Nm@rpm  160@2000 Nm@rpm  140@1800-3000 Nm@rpm  235.3@1900-2750 Nm@rpm 
Stroke 94 mm  81.5 mm  83 mm  95.5 mm  82 mm  80.6 mm  79 mm  84.5 mm 
Horse Power 115@3800 ps@rpm  63.12@3200 ps@rpm  101@5800 ps@rpm  102@5500 ps@rpm  155 Nm @ 1600 rpm ps@rpm  85@5500 ps@rpm  65@4000 ps@rpm  70@4000 ps@rpm  110@4000 ps@rpm 
Fuel System CRDi   DI   MPFi   MPFI   TDI   MPFi   CRDi   TDI   CRDi  
Displacement 2609 cc  2523 cc  1598 cc  1586 cc  1422 cc  1468 cc  1461 cc  1405 cc  1493 cc 
Cylinder Configuration 4-inline   4-inline   4-inline   4-inline   3-inline   4-inline   4   4-inline   4-inline  
Compression Ratio 18.5:1   9.5:1   9.0:1   19.5:1   9.0:1   17.9:1   18.5:1   17.8:1  
Bore 94 mm  79 mm  78 mm  79.5 mm  75.5 mm  76 mm  75 mm  75 mm 
Aspiration Turbo-charged   Turbo-charged   Naturally-aspirated   Naturally-aspirated   Naturally-aspirated   Turbo-charged  
Drive Train         
Type Manual   Manual   Manual   Manual   Manual   Manual   Manual   Manual   Manual  
Gears 5   5   5   5   5   5   5   5   5  
Drive Line RWD   RWD   FWD   FWD   FWD   FWD   FWD  
Steering and Suspension         
Rear Suspension Multilink,Coil Spring   Leaf springs   MacPherson struts with dual links   Semi independent torsion beam with gas filled shock absorbers.   Compound link crank-axle   Multi-link, coil spring, stabilizer bar   Torsion beam with coil springs   Independent, three-link, MacPherson struts, anti-roll bar   Non-independent torsion beam  
Front Suspension Independent with coil springs   Independent with coil springs   MacPherson struts   Independent suspension with gas filled McPhersonstrut and anti toll bar   McPherson suspension with lower triangular links and torsion stabiliser   Gas Filled Shock Absorber With Coil Springs and Stabilizer Bar   MacPherson strut type with stabilizer   Independent, MacPherson struts with lower wishbone, anti-roll bar   MacPherson struts with coil springs and anti-roll bar  
Steering Type Rack and pinion, power assist   Rack and pinion, power assist   Hydraulic, power assist   Electric Power Steering   Rack & Pinion, Power-assisted   Rack and pinion, power assist   Rack and pinion, power assist   Rack and pinion, power assist   Rack and pinion, power assist  
Power Steering

Available

Available

Available

Available

yes  

Available

Available

Available

Available

Dimensions         
Width 1700 mm  1660 mm  1772 mm  1735 mm  1642 mm  1690 mm  1740 mm  1620 mm  1695 mm 
Wheelbase 2680 mm  2680 mm  2600 mm  2500 mm  2462 mm  2500 mm  2630 mm  2650 mm  2500 mm 
Rear Leg Room min: 60 mm max: 72.5 mm  min: 74 mm max: 94 mm  min: 70 mm max: 90 mm  min: 64 mm max: 87 mm  - -  min: 63 mm max: 85 mm  - -  min: 1065 mm max: 1065 mm  min: 62.5 mm max: 83.5 mm 
Rear Head Room min: 101.5 mm max: 101.5 mm  min: 60 mm max: 60 mm  min: 91 mm max: 91 mm  min: 87 mm max: 87 mm  - -  min: 85 mm max: 85 mm  min: 97 mm max: 97 mm  min: 98 mm max: 98 mm  min: 90 mm max: 90 mm 
Length 4325 mm  4056 mm  4295 mm  4490 mm  3992 mm  4290 mm  4247 mm  4377 mm  4310 mm 
Kerb Weight min: 1880 kg max: 1880 kg  min: 1615 kg max: 1615 kg  min: 1230 kg max: 1585 kg  min: 1200 kg max: 1200 kg  - -  min: 1010 kg max: 1010 kg  min: 1140 kg max: 1140 kg  min: 1185 kg max: 1185 kg  min: 1173 kg max: 1173 kg 
Height 1916 mm  1880 mm  1445 mm  1570 mm  1513 mm  1430 mm  1534 mm  1540 mm  1490 mm 
Gross Weight 2510 kg  1635 kg  1585 kg  1650 kg 
Front Leg Room - -  - -  - -  - -  - -  - -  - -  - -  - - 
Front Head Room min: 101.5 mm max: 101.5 mm  min: 60 mm max: 60 mm  min: 91 mm max: 91 mm  min: 87 mm max: 87 mm  - -  min: 85 mm max: 85 mm  min: 97 mm max: 97 mm  min: 98 mm max: 98 mm  min: 90 mm max: 90 mm 
Clearance 180 mm  200 mm  185 mm  190 mm  146 mm  185 mm  172 mm  165 mm  170 mm 
Boot min: 460 litre max: 460 litre  - -  min: 275 litre max: 1045 litre  min: 505 litre max: 505 litre  - -  min: 420 litre max: 420 litre  min: 510 litre max: 510 litre  min: 450 litre max: 450 litre  min: 352 litre max: 352 litre 

 

 

compare products with mahindra Renault

 

Available Available  Not Available Not Available

Compare Products




Rs. 4,89,182

Mahindra Renault Logan GL 1.4



Rs. 4,48,198

Hyundai Getz Prime 1.1 GLE



Rs. 4,60,955

Chevrolet U - VA 1.2 BASE



Rs. 4,96,863

Maruti WagonR AX



Rs. 5,05,173

Maruti Swift Dzire Lxi



Rs. 5,25,902

Maruti Swift LDI DIESEL



Rs. 5,27,090

Tata Indigo GLS



Rs. 5,28,858

Maruti Ritz Ldi BS IV
Safety Features        
Rear Airbag

Not Available

Not Available

Not Available

Not Available

Not Available

Not Available

Not Available

Passenger Airbag

Not Available

Not Available

Not Available

Not Available

Not Available

Not Available

Not Available

Not Available

Keyless Entry

Available

Not Available

Not Available

Not Available

Available

Not Available

Not Available

Not Available

Front Airbag

Not Available

Not Available

Not Available

Not Available

Not Available

Not Available

Not Available

Driver Airbag

Not Available

Not Available

Not Available

Not Available

Not Available

Not Available

Available

Not Available

Depowered Airbag

Not Available

Not Available

Not Available

Not Available

Not Available

Not Available

Not Available

Child Safety Lock

Available

Available

Available

Available

Available

Available

Available

Central Locking

Not Available

Not Available

Not Available

Available

Available

Not Available

Not Available

Not Available

Anti-theft System

Not Available

Not Available

Not Available

Not Available

Not Available

Not Available

Not Available

Antilock Braking System

Not Available

Not Available

Not Available

Not Available

Not Available

Not Available

Available

Available

Overview        
Variant GL 1.4   1.1 GLE   1.2 BASE   AX   Lxi   LDI DIESEL   GLS   Ldi BS IV  
Title Mahindra Renault Logan GL 1.4 (Petrol) Sedan Car   Hyundai Getz Prime 1.1 Gle (Petrol) Hatchback Car   Chevrolet U-Va 1.2 Base (Petrol) Hatchback Car   Maruti Wagonr Ax (Petrol) Hatchback Car   Maruti Swift Dzire Lxi (Petrol)   Maruti Swift Ldi (Diesel) Hatchback Car   Tata Indigo Gls (Petrol) Sedan Car   Maruti Suzuki Ritz Ldi BS IV (Diesel) Hatchback car  
Seating Capacity 5   5   5   5   5   5   5   5  
Model Renault Logan   Getz Prime   U - VA   WagonR   Swift Dzire   Swift   Indigo   Ritz  
Make Mahindra   Hyundai   Chevrolet   Maruti   Maruti   Maruti   Tata   Maruti  
Number of doors 4   5   5   5   4   5   4   4  
Body Type Sedan   Hatchback   Hatchback   Hatchback   Sedan   Hatchback   Sedan   Hatchback  
Fuel Efficiency        
Highway Mileage 15.7 kmpl  14.61 kmpl  15 kmpl  15.7 kmpl  13 kmpl  18.2 kmpl  13.6 kmpl 
Fuel Type Petrol   Petrol   Petrol   Petrol   Petrol   Diesel   Petrol   Diesel  
Fuel Grade
Fuel Capacity 50 litre  45 litre  45 litre  35 litre  43 litre  43 litre  42 litre  43 litre 
City Mileage 11.3 kmpl  9.3 kmpl  10.6 kmpl  10.2 kmpl  11 kmpl  13.8 kmpl  8.3 kmpl 
Comfort Features        
Sun Roof

Not Available

Not Available

Not Available

Not Available

Available

Not Available

Not Available

Not Available

Power Windows

Not Available

Not Available

Not Available

Available

Available

Not Available

Not Available

Available

Power Seat

Not Available

Not Available

Not Available

Not Available

Not Available

Not Available

Not Available

Power Mirrors

Available

Not Available

Available

Not Available

Available

Available

Not Available

Not Available

Power Door Locks

Available

Not Available

Not Available

Available

Available

Not Available

Not Available

Not Available

Navigation

Not Available

Not Available

Not Available

Not Available

Available

Not Available

Not Available

Moon Roof

Not Available

Not Available

Not Available

Not Available

Not Available

Not Available

Not Available

Leather Seats

Not Available

Not Available

Not Available

Not Available

Available

Not Available

Not Available

Not Available

driverSeatAdjust                
Cruise
CD Player

Not Available

Not Available

Not Available

Available

Available

Not Available

Not Available

Not Available

Cassette Player

Not Available

Not Available

Not Available

Not Available

Not Available

Not Available

Not Available

AM / FM Radio

Not Available

Not Available

Not Available

Not Available

Available

Not Available

Not Available

Not Available

Air-Conditioning

Not Available

Available

Available

Available

Available

Available

Available

Available

Engine Parameters        
No. Of Valves 8   12   16   16   16   16   20  
Valve Gear Operation SOHC   SOHC   SOHC   SOHC   SOHC   DOHC   SOHC  
Torque 110@3000 Nm@rpm  102@3200 Nm@rpm  110@4400 Nm@rpm  84@3500 Nm@rpm  113@4500 Nm@rpm  190@2000 Nm@rpm  109.83@3000 Nm@rpm  190@2000 Nm@rpm 
Stroke 70 mm  77 mm  78 mm  72 mm  75.5 mm  82 mm  79 mm 
Horse Power 75@5500 ps@rpm  65.7@5500 ps@rpm  76@5500 ps@rpm  64@6200 ps@rpm  87@6000 ps@rpm  75@4000 ps@rpm  85@6000 ps@rpm  75@4000 ps@rpm 
Fuel System MPFi   MPFi   SEFi   MPFI   MPI   MPFI   MPFi  
Displacement 1390 cc  1086 cc  1150 cc  1061 cc  1298 cc  1248 cc  1405 cc  1248 cc 
Cylinder Configuration 4   4-inline   4-inline   4-inline   4-inline   4-inline   4-inline   4 inline  
Compression Ratio 9.5:1   8.9:1   9.5:1   9:01   9.0:1   9.0:1   9.0:1   :1  
Bore 79.5 mm  66 mm  68.5 mm  69 mm  74 mm  69.6 mm  75 mm 
Aspiration Naturally-aspirated   Naturally-aspirated   Naturally-aspirated   Naturally aspirated   Naturally-aspirated   Naturally-aspirated  
Drive Train        
Type Manual   Manual   Manual   Manual   Manual   Manual   Manual   Manual  
Gears 5   5   5   5   5   5   5   5  
Drive Line FWD   FWD   FWD   FWD   FWD  
Steering and Suspension        
Rear Suspension Torsion beam with coil springs   Dependent torsion beam axle and coil spring   Torsion Beam, Gas Filled shock-absorbers   Coil spring, three-link rigid axle   Torsion beam and coil spring   Torsion beam and coil spring   Independent, three-link, MacPherson struts, anti-roll bar   Torsion beam & coil spring  
Front Suspension MacPherson strut type with stabilizer   Independent, MacPherson strut type with torsion bar   Mcpherson Struts with Anti-roll Torsion bars, gas-filled shock-absorbers   MacPherson strut type, stabilizer bar   MacPherson strut and coil spring   MacPherson strut and coil spring   Independent, MacPherson struts with lower wishbone, anti-roll bar   McPherson strut with coil spring  
Steering Type Rack and pinion   Rack and pinion, hydraulic power assist   Rack   Rack and pinion, power assist   Rack and pinion, Pinion type electronic power assisted   Rack and pinion, power assist   Rack and pinion, power assist  
Power Steering

Not Available

Available

Available

Available

Available

Available

Available

Dimensions        
Width 1740 mm  1665 mm  1670 mm  1490 mm  1690 mm  1690 mm  1620 mm  1680 mm 
Wheelbase 2630 mm  2455 mm  2480 mm  2360 mm  2390 mm  2390 mm  2450 mm  2360 mm 
Rear Leg Room - -  min: 66.5 mm max: 87.5 mm  min: 65.5 mm max: 87.5 mm  min: 62 mm max: 80 mm  - -  min: 58.5 mm max: 82 mm  min: 65.5 mm max: 85.5 mm  - - 
Rear Head Room min: 97 mm max: 97 mm  min: 92.5 mm max: 92.5 mm  min: 90 mm max: 90 mm  min: 80 mm max: 80 mm  - -  min: 91 mm max: 91 mm  min: 89.5 mm max: 89.5 mm  - - 
Length 4247 mm  3825 mm  3880 mm  3520 mm  4160 mm  3695 mm  4150 mm  3715 mm 
Kerb Weight min: 1040 kg max: 1040 kg  min: 995 kg max: 995 kg  min: 1075 kg max: 1075 kg  min: 840 kg max: 870 kg  min: 1010 kg max: 1010 kg  min: 1065 kg max: 1065 kg  min: 1070 kg max: 1070 kg  min: 1100 kg max: 1100 kg 
Height 1534 mm  1515 mm  1495 mm  1660 mm  1530 mm  1530 mm  1540 mm  1620 mm 
Gross Weight 1450 kg  1505 kg  1240 kg  1490 kg  1490 kg  1520 kg 
Front Leg Room - -  - -  - -  - -  - -  - -  - -  - - 
Front Head Room min: 97 mm max: 97 mm  min: 92.5 mm max: 92.5 mm  min: 90 mm max: 90 mm  min: 80 mm max: 80 mm  - -  min: 91 mm max: 91 mm  min: 89.5 mm max: 89.5 mm  - - 
Clearance 172 mm  160 mm  188 mm  165 mm  170 mm  170 mm  165 mm  170 mm 
Boot min: 510 litre max: 510 litre  min: 290 litre max: 290 litre  min: 220 litre max: 220 litre  min: 312 litre max: 312 litre  - - 

 

Mahindra Vehicles

 

 

Mahindra Cars in India

Mahindra jeeps have reigned on Indian roads since 1949. Mahindra jeep assembly started from that year while collaboration with Willys jeeps came in 1954. Mahindra began manufacture of light commercial vehicles in 1965 jointly with Sperry Rand Corporation. In 1991, the Mahindra Commander was introduced followed by Mahindra Armada in 1993. In 1995, Mahindra Ford India was established. In 2000, Mahindra adopted a new logo and launched the Mahindra Bolero. 2001 saw the coming of the Mahindra Maxx, and 2002 witnessed arrival of the Mahindra Scorpio. In 2005, Mahindra established Mahindra Renault to build and market Sedans. Cars from Mahindra

Cars from Mahindra :

Mahindra (Sedan)

Popular Mahindra sedans range from Mahindra cars costing a bit below rupees five lakhs to Mahindra cars costing a bit above rupees nine lakh eighty thousand. Popular Mahindra sedans include


Mahindra Renault (Sedan)

Mahindra (Sedan) The Mahindra Renault Logan is a spacious wide body sedan built in association with Renault - the leading automobile manufacturer worldwide. It is a built around Renault's leading space optimization' design. Mahindra (Sedan) The Mahindra Renault with its petrol and diesel variants targets the upper middle class consumer with Mahindra cars ranging between rupees five and seven lakhs. Mahindra Renault variants include

Renault Logan GL 1.4 (Petrol)
Renault Logan GL 1.4 is one of the perfect fit and finish car in its segment. New cars have a show room price of around Rs.4,35,000 and on-road price of around Rs.5,00,000 inclusive of all charges such as insurance, octroi, RTO, etc. Mahindra Renault Logan GL 1.4 car prices vary with the car dealer's location.

Renault Logan GLE 1.4 (Petrol)
Renault Logan GLE 1.4, this perfectionist has is gifted with perfect body structure and control level. New cars in this series have a showroom price ranging from around four lakhs to around five lakhs inclusive of all charges like insurance, octroi, RTO, etc. Renault Logan GLE 1.4 car prices vary with the car dealer's location.

Renault Logan GLX 1.6 (Petrol)
Renault Logan GLX 1.6 is the ideal combination of power and elegance. At the showroom, this car costs around Rs.5,35,000 with an on-road price of around Rs.6,00,000. This includes standard ancillary charges also.

Renault Logan DLE 1.5 (Diesel)
This variant of Logan defines itself in terms of spaciousness and performance. The Renault Logan DLE 1.5 is now available at a showroom price of around Rs.5,55,000 with an on road price of around Rs.6,20,000 including supplementary charges.

Renault Logan GLS 1.6 (Petrol)
Renault Logan GLS 1.6 is a wide body car with classy features and aggressive price. New cars have a show room price of around Rs.5,75,000 and on-road price of around Rs.6,50,000. Mahindra Renault Logan GLS 1.6 car prices vary with the car dealer's location.

Renault Logan DLX 1.5 (Diesel)
Renault Logan DLX 1.5 is marked for its spacious and comfortable features. New cars in this series have a showroom price ranging from around six lakhs to around seven lakhs inclusive of all charges like insurance, octroi, RTO, etc. Renault Logan DLX 1.5 car prices vary with the car dealer's location.

Renault Logan DLS 1.5 (Diesel)
This sedan variant from the Logan collection includes all the latest features and facilities available in its segment. At the showroom, this car costs around Rs.6,50,000 with an on-road price of around Rs.7,30,000. This includes standard ancillary charges also.

Mahindra (SUV)

Popular Mahindra SUV car prices range from Mahindra cars at a bit above rupees five lakhs to Mahindra cars at a bit below rupees ten lakhs, including


Mahindra Bolero (SUV)

Mahindra (SUV) The Mahindra Bolero is Mahindra's leading presentation in the utility vehicle segment. It comes with a brand new style and time tested performance. The Mahindra Bolero lives up to its reputation of being a tough vehicle. Mahindra (SUV) The Mahindra Bolero with its diesel variants targets the middle class consumer with Mahindra SUVs at on-road prices ranging between rupees five and seven lakhs. Mahindra Bolero variants include

Bolero DIZ (Diesel)
The Bolero DIZ excels in style with an aggressive grille ornament, muscular stance and low fender extensions. The Bolero DIZ is now available at a showroom price of around Rs.5,00,000 with an on road price of around Rs.5,60,000 including supplementary charges.

Bolero DI (Diesel)
Bolero DI makes toughest roads smoothest while riding. New cars have a show room price of around Rs.5,20,000 and on-road price of around Rs.5,85,000. Mahindra Bolero DI car prices vary in lakhs upon the car dealer's location.

Bolero SLE (Diesel)
Bolero SLE is a perfect match of style, comfort and convenience. New cars in this series have a showroom price ranging from around five lakhs to around six lakhs inclusive of all charges like insurance, octroi, RTO, etc. Bolero SLE car prices vary with the car dealer's location.

Bolero Plus (Diesel)
The Mahindra Bolero gives an outstanding performance along with modern looks and features giving the owner complete value for money. At the showroom, this car costs around Rs.5,50,000 with an on-road price of around Rs.6,20,000. This includes standard ancillary charges also.

Bolero SLX (Diesel)
This variant of Bolero is packed with new style and comfort to suit your needs or unleash your style. The Bolero Bolero SLX is now available at a showroom price of around Rs.5,80,000 with an on road price of around Rs.6,55,000 including supplementary charges.

Mahindra Scorpio (SUV)

Mahindra (SUV) The Scorpio is Mahindra's world class presentation and flagship adventurous SUV. Mahindra (SUV) The Mahindra Scorpio with its diesel variants targets the middle class consumer with Mahindra SUVs at on-road prices ranging between rupees eight and ten lakhs. Mahindra Scorpio variants include

Scorpio 2.6 LX (7-Seater) (Diesel)
This vehicle comes fully packed with loads of stylish, convenient and comfort features. New cars have a show room price of around Rs.7,10,000 and on-road price of around Rs.8,00,000. Mahindra Scorpio 2.6 LX (7-Seater) car prices vary with the car dealer's location.

Scorpio 2.6 LX (9-Seater) (Diesel)
Figure out the great technological, exterior, interior, and safety features on this masterpiece. New cars in this series have a showroom price ranging from around seven lakhs to around eight lakhs inclusive of all charges like insurance, octroi, RTO, etc. Mahindra Scorpio 2.6 LX (9-Seater) car prices vary with the car dealer's location.

Scorpio 2.6 DX (7-Seater) (Diesel)
Scorpio 2.6 DX is well known for eye-catching looks and sturdy performance. At the showroom, this car costs around Rs.7,80,000 with an on-road price of around Rs.8,80,000. This includes standard ancillary charges also.

Scorpio 2.6 DX (8-Seater) (Diesel)
Scorpio 2.6 DX exudes robust and elegance including go-getting features. The Scorpio 2.6DX is now available at a showroom price of around Rs.7,78,000 with an on road price of around Rs.8,80,000 including supplementary charges.

Scorpio 2.6 SLX (7-Seater)(Diesel)
This variant from the Mahindra Scorpio's stable is marked for its durability, reliability and low maintenance. New cars have a show room price of around Rs.8,40,000 and on-road price of around Rs.9,50,000. Mahindra Scorpio 2.6 SLX (7-Seater) car prices vary with the car dealer's location.

Scorpio 2.6 SLX (8-Seater) (Diesel)
Scorpio 2.6 SLX possess strong engine with its attractive looks and decent design. New cars in this series have a showroom price ranging from around eight lakhs to around nine lakhs inclusive of all charges like insurance, octroi, RTO, etc. Scorpio 2.6 SLX car prices vary with the car dealer's location.

Mahindra has positioned itself as the traditional leader in utility vehicles on Indian roads. Its tie-up with Renault has marked its full-fledged entry into the passenger car market. Mahindra cars today, including Mahindra Bolero, Mahindra Scorpio, and Mahindra Logan enjoy immense popularity with Indian middle class consumers.


 

Micro Hybrid Technology

 Mahindra Scorpio's revolutionary Micro-Hybrid technology

 

Mahindra Scorpio
Mahindra Scorpio
Mahindra launched the new ‘mighty muscular’ Scorpio successfully to excellent customer response. Always aggressive in its looks and attitude,
 

Scorpio’s dominance on Indian roads is a well-known story. But this time around, there’s a surprise in store for everyone, as this bully has a soft corner.

The revolutionary new Micro Hybrid technology makes Mahindra’s Scorpio really gentle. On the environment that is. This technology allows it to intelligently switch off the engine when not required. Thus going into standby mode after few seconds* of engine idling, ready to spring back to life the moment it’s needed again. This ensures you burn less fuel and reduce emissions. Providing much needed relief to the environment, our lungs and our wallets too!

In a nutshell, the Micro Hybrid technology:

• Switches off the engine when the Scorpio idles for a preset duration (*2 seconds in Scorpio VLX, 5 seconds in Scorpio M2Di)
• Switches the engine back on, the instant your leg depresses the clutch pedal
• Burns less fuel, thus reducing pollution and helping to conserve the environment

Mahindra deserve credit for taking the lead in implementing Micro Hybrid technology, an innovative and affordable step towards sustainability. We’re sure many will follow in the footsteps of this first Micro Hybrid car in the country.

Anti Theft System

Talking cars to save each other from theft
 
Car protection systems
Stealing a car wont be easy for thieves anymore, thanks to a new type of car alarm that enables the vehicles to look after each other’s safety - just like a herd of animals under any potential threat from predators.

In this novel security system, cars will be talking to their neighbours constantly via hidden wireless transmitters, and if in case a thief tries to sweep it off, the cars would raise the alarm in a matter of seconds. The system called SVATS (Sensor-network-based Vehicle Anti-theft System) has been designed by Hui Song from in collaboration with colleagues at.

"Multiple sensors hidden within the car would make it difficult, if not impossible, for a car thief to disable the system in a short period of time," New Scientist quoted Song, as saying. In fact, this new model would also omit those false alerts, characteristic of traditional car alarms. Also, this cooperative, mutable and silent network of monitoring system would also do away with that annoying blare of an ignored car alarm.

Conventional location equipment, such as various G.P.S. systems, can be identified and neutralized.
The system starts when the driver of the vehicle switches on the transmitters fitted inside using a remote control, at the time of leaving the car. Then the car sends out a "join" message to all the nearby cars. The cars chooses its nearest neighbours to act as its sentinels and prefers partners that need the lowest signal strength for communication, so that the system does not consume less of the car's battery. The car continues sending out periodic "alive" signals to these watchers, till the time the owner returns and it finally sends a "goodbye" message.

However, in case the "alive" messages die out without a “goodbye” message, then the cars acting as watchers would report a theft by transmitting a message to a central base station. This would intern trigger the alarm which in turn would notify the security guard of the car park, the owners of the vehicle, or the police.

In fact, the system will also sense if a car is moving unexpectedly by measuring the signal strength of any "alive" messages. And if that happens, it transmits a warning message to other cars that are keeping a check on the same vehicle, because it is likely to be moving.

But, a theft alarm message will only be sent to the base station if a watching car gets more than three such warning signals from different sources. This would decrease the chances of any false alarms known for anti-theft systems.

The researchers themselves drove off some cars to test how the system works, and found that SVATS detected all such "thefts" in a matter of just 4 to 9 seconds. The system was apparently resistant to false alarms caused by weather, or people walking around the car park, both of which can affect the signals between sensors.

If a car is stolen from the lot, it is preferable that the theft be noticed and reported before the car leaves the lot, but if it is not, the Sensor network-based Vehicle Anti-Theft system, SVATS, has another layer of protection.

Although the main or master sensor needs to be connected to the car's power system and so is fairly easily disabled by thieves, other slave sensors would be distributed in the car. These sensors might be activated when the master sensor no longer operates and begin to send out an identification signal. The researchers hope to be able to use existing wireless devices that are at intersections and roadsides, to track the sensors in the stolen car.

While these wireless nodes are not on every street, in areas where they are used to sense traffic patterns, stop light timing and other things, they can be used to track stolen cars. Because the slave sensors are very small, they would be very difficult to locate and destroy, while conventional location equipment, such as various G.P.S. systems, can be identified and neutralized.

Tags: automobile, technology, anti theft alarm, car security.


 

MPFI system

MPFI System

MPFI:
M.P.F.I. means Multi Point Fuel Injection system. In this system each cylinder has number of  injectors to supply/spray fuel in the cylinders as compared to one injector located centrally to supply/spray fuel in case of single point injection system.
INDIACAR MULTI POINT FUEL INJECTION
Stage(1)
INDIACAR MULTI POINT FUEL INJECTION
Stage(2)
INDIACAR MULTI POINT FUEL INJECTION
Stage(3)
INDIACAR MULTI POINT FUEL INJECTION
Stage(4)

Advantage of M. P. F. I.

(1) More uniform A/F mixture will be supplied to each cylinder, hence the difference in power developed in each cylinder is minimum. Vibration from the engine equipped with this system is less, due to this the life of engine components is improved.

(2) No need to crank the engine twice or thrice in case of cold starting as happens in the carburetor system.

(3) Immediate response, in case of sudden acceleration / deceleration.

(4) Since the engine is controlled by ECM* (Engine Control Module), more accurate amount of A/F mixture will be supplied and as a result complete combustion will take place. This leads to effective utilization of fuel supplied and hence low emission level.

(5) The mileage of the vehicle will be improved.


ECM ( Engine Control Module) and its function

The function of ECM is to receive signal from various sensors, manipulate the signals and send control signals to the actuators.

Sensors; Sensing different parameters (Temperature, Pressure, Engine Speed etc.) of the engine and send signal to ECM.

Actuators; Receives control signal from ECM and does function accordingly (ISCA, PCSV, Injectors, Power Transistor etc.)

Case I: If ECM fails to send control signal to all actuators then the engine won't get started.

Case II: If ECM fails to service from all sensors then also the engine won't get started.

Airbag system

Airbag

 
The driver and passenger front airbags, after having been deployed, in a Peugeot 306 car.

An airbag is a vehicle safety device. It is an occupant restraint consisting of a flexible envelope designed to inflate rapidly in an automobile collision, to prevent vehicle occupants from striking interior objects such as the steering wheel or window.

Contents

[1 Terminology

 Terminology

Because no action by the vehicle occupant is required to activate or use the airbag, it is considered a passive safety device. This is in contrast to seat belts, which are considered active safety devices because the vehicle occupant must act to enable them.[1][2][3][4][5] Terminological confusion can arise from the fact that passive safety devices and systems — those requiring no input or action by the vehicle occupant — can themselves operate in an active manner; an airbag is one such device. Vehicle safety professionals are generally careful in their use of language to avoid this sort of confusion, though advertising principles sometimes prevent such syntactic caution in the consumer marketing of safety features.

Various manufacturers have over time used different terms for airbags. General Motors' first bags, in the 1970s, were marketed as the Air Cushion Restraint System. Common terms in North America include Supplemental Restraint System (SRS) and Supplemental Inflatable Restraint (SIR); these terms reflect the airbag system's nominal role as a supplement to active restraints, i.e., seat belts.

 History

1975 Buick Electra with ACRS
In 1994, Ford of Europe made airbags standard equipment in all the cars they built

 Invention

An American inventor, John W. Hetrick, a retired industrial engineer, designed the original safety cushion for automotive use in 1952 at his kitchen table. His patent lasted only 17 years long before the mainstream automotive usage. Dr. David S. Breed, invented and developed a key component for automotive use: the ball-in-tube inertial sensor for crash detection. Breed Corporation then marketed this innovation first in 1967 to Chrysler. A similar "Auto-Ceptor" crash-restraint, developed by Eaton, Yale & Towne Inc. for Ford was soon offered as an automatic safety system in the USA,[6] while the Italian Eaton-Livia company offered a variant with localized air cushions.[7]

As an alternative to seatbelts

Airbags for passenger cars were introduced in the United States in the mid-1970s, when seat belt usage rates in the country were quite low. Airbags were marketed as a convenient alternative to seat belts, while offering similar levels of protection to unbelted occupants in a head-on collision.

Ford built an experimental fleet of cars with airbags in 1971, followed by General Motors in 1973 on Chevrolet vehicles. In 1974, GM made dual-stage twin front airbags optional in full-size Buick, Cadillac and Oldsmobile models and called them the "Air Cushion Restraint System". The early fleet of experimental GM vehicles equipped with airbags experienced seven fatalities, one of which was later suspected to have been caused by the airbag.[citation needed]

The development of airbags coincided with an international interest in automobile safety legislation. Some safety experts advocated a performance-based occupant protection standard rather than a standard mandating a particular technical solution, which could rapidly become outdated and might not be a cost-effective approach. As countries successively mandated seat belt restraints, there was less emphasis placed on other designs for several decades.[7]

Toyota, Mercedes, and other European manufacturers emphasise that an airbag is not, and can not be an alternative to seatbelts. They emphasise that they are only supplemental to a seatbelt. Hence the commonly used term "Supplemental Restraint System" or SRS. It is vitally important that drivers and passengers are aware of this. In the majority of cases of death caused by air bags, seat belts were not worn.

 As a supplemental restraint

 Frontal airbag

The auto industry and research and regulatory communities have moved away from their initial view of the airbag as a seat belt replacement, and the bags are now nominally designated as Supplemental Restraint System (SRS) or Supplemental Inflatable Restraints.

In 1980, Mercedes-Benz introduced the airbag in Germany, as an option on its high-end S-Class (W126). In the Mercedes system, the sensors would tighten the seat belts, and then deploy the airbag on impact. This integrated the seat belts and airbag into a restraint system, rather than the airbag being considered an alternative to the seat belt.

In 1987, the Porsche 944 turbo became the first car in the world to have driver and passenger airbags as standard equipment. The Porsche 944 and 944S had this as an available option. The same year also saw the first airbag in a Japanese car, the Honda Legend[8].

Airbags became common in the 1980s, with Chrysler and Ford introducing them in the mid-1980s; it was Chrysler that made them standard equipment across its entire line in 1990 (except for trucks until 1995).[citation needed]

Audi was relatively late to offer airbag systems on a broader scale; until the 1994 model year, for example, the 80/90, by far Audi's 'bread-and-butter' model, as well as the 100/200, did not have airbags in their standard versions. Instead, the German automaker until then relied solely on its proprietary procon-ten restraint system.

In Europe, airbags were almost entirely absent from family cars until the early 1990s, except for Saab, who made them standard on the 900 Turbo in 1989 and on all models in 1990. The first European Ford to feature an airbag was the facelifted Escort MK5b in 1992; within a year, the entire Ford range had at least one airbag as standard. By the mid 1990s, European market leaders such as Vauxhall/Opel, Rover, Peugeot, Renault and Fiat had included airbags as at least optional equipment across their model ranges. By the end of the decade, it was very rare to find a mass market car without an airbag, and some late 1990s products, such as the Volkswagen Golf Mk4 also featured side airbags. The Peugeot 306 was a classical example of how commonplace airbags became on mass market cars during the 1990s. On its launch in early 1993 most of the range did not even have driver airbags as an option. By 1999 however, side airbags were available on several variants.

During the 2000s side airbags were commonplace on even budget cars, such as the smaller-engined versions of the Ford Fiesta and Peugeot 206, and curtain airbags were also becoming regular features on mass market cars. The Toyota Avensis, launched in 1998, was the first mass market car to be sold in Europe with a total of nine airbags. Although in some countries, such as Russia, airbags are still not standard equipment on all cars, such as those from Lada.

Variable force deployment front airbags were developed to help minimize injury from the airbag itself.

 Shaped airbags

The Citroën C4 provides the first "shaped" driver airbag, made possible by this car's unusual fixed hub steering wheel.[citation needed]

 Side airbag

Side airbag inflated permanently for display purposes
A deployed curtain airbag in a Opel Vectra

There are essentially two types of side airbags commonly used today, the side torso airbag and the side curtain airbag.

Side-impact airbags or side torso airbags are a category of airbag usually located in the seat, and inflate between the seat occupant and the door. These airbags are designed to reduce the risk of injury to the pelvic and lower abdomen regions. Some vehicles are now being equipped with a different types of designs, to help reduce injury and ejection from the vehicle in rollover crashes.

The Swedish company Autoliv AB, was granted a patent on side airbags, and they were first offered as an option in 1994 on the 1995 model year Volvo 850, and as standard equipment on all Volvo cars made after 1995.

 Side tubular or curtain airbag

In late 1997 the 1998 model year BMW 7-series and E39 5-series were fitted with a tubular shaped head side airbags, the "Head Protection System (HPS)" as standard equipment. This is an industry's first in offering head protection in side impact collisions.[9] This airbag also maintained inflation for up to seven seconds for rollover protection. However, this tubular shaped airbag design has been quickly replaced by an inflatable 'curtain' airbag for superior protection.

In May 1998 Toyota began offering the first side curtain airbag deploying from the roof on the Progrés.[10] In 1998 the Volvo S80 was first given curtain airbags to protect both front and rear passengers. They were then made standard equipment on all new Volvo cars from 1998 and while initially seat-mounted later versions deployed from the roof.

Roll-sensing side curtain airbags found on vehicles more prone to rollovers such as SUV's and pickups will deploy when a rollover is detected instead of just when an actual collision takes place. Often times there is a switch to disable the feature in case the driver wants to take the vehicle offroad.

Curtain airbags have been said to reduce brain injury or fatalities by up to 45% in a side impact with an SUV. These airbags come in various forms (e.g., tubular, curtain, door-mounted) depending on the needs of the application.[11] Many recent SUVs and MPVs have a long inflatable curtain airbag that protects all 3 rows of seats.

 Knee airbag

The automotive industry's first knee airbag appeared on the 1996 model Kia Sportage vehicle and has been standard equipment since then. The airbag is located beneath the steering.[12] The Toyota Avensis became the first vehicle sold in Europe equipped with a driver’s knee airbag.[13][14] The EuroNCAP reported on the 2003 Avensis, "There has been much effort to protect the driver’s knees and legs and a knee airbag worked well."[15]

Rear curtain airbag

In 2008, the Toyota iQ launched featuring the first rear curtain shield airbag to protect the rear occupants heads in the event of a rear end impact.[16]

Rear center airbag

Toyota developed the first rear-seat center airbag designed to reduce the severity of secondary injuries to rear passengers in a side collision. This system deploys from the rear center console first appearing in 2009 on the redesigned Crown Majesta.[17]

On motorcycles

Various types of airbags were tested on motorcycles by the UK Transport Research Laboratory in the mid 1970s. In 2006 Honda introduced the first production motorcycle airbag safety system on its Gold Wing motorcycle. Honda claims that sensors in the front forks can detect a severe frontal collision and decide when to deploy the airbag, absorbing some of the forward energy of the rider and reducing the velocity at which the rider may be thrown from the motorcycle.[18]

Airbag suits have also been developed for use by Motorcycle Grand Prix riders. They are connected to the motorcycle by a cable and deploy when the cable becomes detached from its mounting clip, inflating to protect the back.[19]

 How airbags work

An ACU from a Geo Storm.

The design is conceptually simple; a central "Airbag control unit"[20] (ACU) (a specific type of ECU) monitors a number of related sensors within the vehicle, including accelerometers, impact sensors, side (door) pressure sensors[21], wheel speed sensors, gyroscopes, brake pressure sensors, and seat occupancy sensors. When the requisite 'threshold' has been reached or exceeded, the airbag control unit will trigger the ignition of a gas generator propellant to rapidly inflate a nylon fabric bag. As the vehicle occupant collides with and squeezes the bag, the gas escapes in a controlled manner through small vent holes. The airbag's volume and the size of the vents in the bag are tailored to each vehicle type, to spread out the deceleration of (and thus force experienced by) the occupant over time and over the occupant's body, compared to a seat belt alone.

The signals from the various sensors are fed into the Airbag control unit, which determines from them the angle of impact, the severity, or force of the crash, along with other variables. Depending on the result of these calculations, the ACU may also deploy various additional restraint devices, such as seat belt pre-tensioners, and/or airbags (including frontal bags for driver and front passenger, along with seat-mounted side bags, and "curtain" airbags which cover the side glass). Each restraint device is typically activated with one or more pyrotechnic devices, commonly called an initiator or electric match. The electric match, which consists of an electrical conductor wrapped in a combustible material, activates with a current pulse between 1 to 3 amperes in less than 2 milliseconds. When the conductor becomes hot enough, it ignites the combustible material, which initiates the gas generator. In a seat belt pre-tensioner, this hot gas is used to drive a piston that pulls the slack out of the seat belt. In an airbag, the initiator is used to ignite solid propellant inside the airbag inflator. The burning propellant generates inert gas which rapidly inflates the airbag in approximately 20 to 30 milliseconds. An airbag must inflate quickly in order to be fully inflated by the time the forward-traveling occupant reaches its outer surface. Typically, the decision to deploy an airbag in a frontal crash is made within 15 to 30 milliseconds after the onset of the crash, and both the driver and passenger airbags are fully inflated within approximately 60-80 milliseconds after the first moment of vehicle contact. If an airbag deploys too late or too slowly, the risk of occupant injury from contact with the inflating airbag may increase. Since more distance typically exists between the passenger and the instrument panel, the passenger airbag is larger and requires more gas to fill it.

Front airbags normally do not protect the occupants during side, rear, or rollover accidents. [22] Since airbags deploy only once and deflate quickly after the initial impact, they will not be beneficial during a subsequent collision. Safety belts help reduce the risk of injury in many types of crashes. They help to properly position occupants to maximize the airbag's benefits and they help restrain occupants during the initial and any following collisions.

In vehicles equipped with a rollover sensing system, accelerometers and gyroscopes are used to sense the onset of a rollover event. If a rollover event is determined to be imminent, side-curtain airbags are deployed to help protect the occupant from contact with the side of the vehicle interior, and also to help prevent occupant ejection as the vehicle rolls over.

 Triggering conditions

Airbags are designed to deploy in frontal and near-frontal collisions more severe than a threshold defined by the regulations governing vehicle construction in whatever particular market the vehicle is intended for. U.S. regulations require deployment in crashes at least equivalent in deceleration to a 23 km/h (14 mph) barrier collision, or similarly, striking a parked car of similar size across the full front of each vehicle at about twice the speed. International ECE regulations are performance-based, rather than technology-based, so airbag deployment threshold is a function of overall vehicle design.

Unlike crash tests into barriers, real-world crashes typically occur at angles other than directly into the front of the vehicle, and the crash forces usually are not evenly distributed across the front of the vehicle. Consequently, the relative speed between a striking and struck vehicle required to deploy the airbag in a real-world crash can be much higher than an equivalent barrier crash. Because airbag sensors measure deceleration, vehicle speed and damage are not good indicators of whether an airbag should have deployed. Airbags can deploy due to the vehicle's undercarriage striking a low object protruding above the roadway due to the resulting deceleration.

The airbag sensor is a MEMS accelerometer, which is a small integrated circuit with integrated micro mechanical elements. The microscopic mechanical element moves in response to rapid deceleration, and this motion causes a change in capacitance, which is detected by the electronics on the chip that then sends a signal to fire the airbag. The most common MEMS accelerometer in use is the ADXL-50 by Analog Devices, but there are other MEMS manufacturers as well.

Initial attempts using mercury switches did not work well. Before MEMS, the primary system used to deploy airbags was called a "rolamite". A rolamite is a mechanical device, consisting of a roller suspended within a tensioned band. As a result of the particular geometry and material properties used, the roller is free to translate with little friction or hysteresis. This device was developed at Sandia National Laboratories. The rolamite, and similar macro-mechanical devices were used in airbags until the mid-1990s when they were universally replaced with MEMS.

Nearly all airbags are designed to automatically deploy in the event of a vehicle fire when temperatures reach 150-200 °C (300-400 °F).[citation needed] This safety feature, often termed auto-ignition, helps to ensure that such temperatures do not cause an explosion of the entire airbag module.

Today, airbag triggering algorithms are becoming much more complex. They try to reduce unnecessary deployments (for example, at low speed, no shocks should trigger the airbag, to help reduce damage to the car interior in conditions where the seat belt would be an adequate safety device), and to adapt the deployment speed to the crash conditions. The algorithms are considered valuable intellectual property. Experimental algorithms may take into account such factors as the weight of the occupant, the seat location, seatbelt use, and even attempt to determine if a baby seat is present.

 Inflation

When the frontal airbags are to deploy, a signal is sent to the inflator unit within the airbag control unit. An igniter starts a rapid chemical reaction generating primarily nitrogen gas (N2) to fill the airbag making it deploy through the module cover. Some airbag technologies use compressed nitrogen or argon gas with a pyrotechnic operated valve ("hybrid gas generator"), while other technologies use various energetic propellants. Propellants containing the highly toxic sodium azide (NaN3) were common in early inflator designs. However, propellants containing sodium azide were widely phased out during the 1990s in pursuit of more efficient, less expensive and less toxic alternatives.[citation needed]

The azide-containing pyrotechnic gas generators contain a substantial amount of the propellant. The driver-side airbag would contain a canister containing about 50 grams of sodium azide. The passenger side container holds about 200 grams of sodium azide.[23] The incomplete combustion of the charge due to rapid cooling leads to production of carbon monoxide (CO) and nitrogen(II) oxide as reaction by-products.[24]

The alternative propellants may incorporate, for example, a combination of nitroguanidine, phase-stabilized ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3) or other nonmetallic oxidizer, and a nitrogen-rich fuel different than azide (eg. tetrazoles, triazoles, and their salts). The burn rate modifiers in the mixture may be an alkaline metal nitrate (NO3-) or nitrite (NO2-), dicyanamide or its salts, sodium borohydride (NaBH4), etc. The coolants and slag formers may be eg. clay, silica, alumina, glass, etc.[25] Other alternatives are eg. nitrocellulose based propellants (which have high gas yield but bad storage stability, and their oxygen balance requires secondary oxidation of the reaction products to avoid buildup of carbon monoxide), or high-oxygen nitrogen-free organic compounds with inorganic oxidizers (e.g., di or tricarboxylic acids with chlorates (ClO3-) or perchlorates (HClO4) and eventually metallic oxides; the nitrogen-free formulation avoids formation of toxic nitrogen oxides).

From the onset of the crash, the entire deployment and inflation process is about 0.04 seconds — faster than the blink of an eye (about 0.2 seconds). Because vehicles change speed so quickly in a crash, airbags must inflate rapidly to reduce the risk of the occupant hitting the vehicle's interior.

 Variable-force deployment

Advanced airbag technologies are being developed to tailor airbag deployment to the severity of the crash, the size and posture of the vehicle occupant, belt usage, and how close that person is to the actual airbag. Many of these systems use multi-stage inflators that deploy less forcefully in stages in moderate crashes than in very severe crashes. Occupant sensing devices let the airbag control unit know if someone is occupying a seat adjacent to an airbag, the mass/weight of the person, whether a seat belt or child restraint is being used, and whether the person is forward in the seat and close to the airbag. Based on this information and crash severity information, the airbag is deployed at either a high force level, a less forceful level, or not at all.

Adaptive airbag systems may utilize multi-stage airbags to adjust the pressure within the airbag. The greater the pressure within the airbag, the more force the airbag will exert on the occupants as they come in contact with it. These adjustments allow the system to deploy the airbag with a moderate force for most collisions; reserving the maximum force airbag only for the severest of collisions. Additional sensors to determine the location, weight or relative size of the occupants may also be used. Information regarding the occupants and the severity of the crash are used by the airbag control unit, to determine whether airbags should be suppressed or deployed, and if so, at various output levels.

Post-deployment view of a SEAT Ibiza airbag

 Post-deployment

Once an airbag deploys, deflation begins immediately as the gas escapes through vent(s) in the fabric (or, as it's sometimes called, the cushion) and cools. Deployment is frequently accompanied by the release of dust-like particles, and gases in the vehicle's interior (called effluent). Most of this dust consists of cornstarch, french chalk, or talcum powder, which are used to lubricate the airbag during deployment. Newer designs produce effluent primarily consisting of harmless talcum powder/cornstarch and nitrogen gas (about 80% of the air we breathe is nitrogen). In older designs using an azide-based propellant (usually NaN3), varying amounts of sodium hydroxide nearly always are initially present. In small amounts this chemical can cause minor irritation to the eyes and/or open wounds; however, with exposure to air, it quickly turns into sodium bicarbonate (baking soda). However, this transformation is not 100% complete, and invariably leaves residual amounts of hydroxide ion from NaOH. Depending on the type of airbag system, potassium chloride (a table salt substitute) may also be present.

For most people, the only effect the dust may produce is some minor irritation of the throat and eyes. Generally, minor irritations only occur when the occupant remains in the vehicle for many minutes with the windows closed and no ventilation. However, some people with asthma may develop an asthmatic attack from inhaling the dust.

 Regulatory specifications

 

Most countries[who?] outside North America adhere to internationalized European ECE vehicle and equipment regulations rather than the U.S. Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards. ECE airbags are generally smaller and inflate less forcefully than U.S. airbags, because the ECE specifications are based around belted crash test dummies. In the United Kingdom, and most other developed countries there is no direct legal requirement for new cars to feature airbags. Instead, the Euro NCAP vehicle safety rating encourages manufacturers to take a comprehensive approach to occupant safety; a good rating can only be achieved by combining airbags with other safety features.[27] Thus almost all new cars now come with at least two airbags as standard.

 Maintenance

Inadvertent airbag deployment while the vehicle is being serviced can result in severe injury, and an improperly installed or defective airbag unit may not operate or perform as intended. Some countries impose restrictions on the sale, transport, handling, and service of airbags and system components. In Germany, airbags are regulated as harmful explosives; only mechanics with special training are allowed to service airbag systems. Under German Federal Law, used but intact airbags are to be detonated under secure conditions, must not be passed on to third parties in any way, and no untrained person is permitted to handle airbags. Purchase is restricted to buying a new replacement unit for immediate installation by the seller's qualified personnel

Some automakers (such as Mercedes-Benz) call for the replacement of undeployed airbags after a certain period of time to ensure their reliability in an accident. One example is the 1992 S500 which has an expiry date sticker attached to the door pillar.

 Safety performance

A U.S. study concluded that as many as 6,000 lives may have been saved as a result of airbags

Injuries and fatalities

Airbags can injure or kill vehicle occupants. To provide crash protection for occupants not wearing seat belts, U.S. airbag designs trigger much more forcefully than airbags designed to the international ECE standards used in most other countries. Recent airbag controllers can recognize if a belt is used, and alter the bag deployment parameters accordingly.[28]

Injuries such as abrasion of the skin, hearing damage from the extremely loud 165-175 dB deployment explosion, head injuries, eye damage, and broken nose, fingers, hands or arms can occur as the airbag deploys.[citation needed] Most vehicle airbags are inflated using hot gas generated by a chemical process. Using hot gas allows the required pressure to be obtained with a smaller mass of gas than would be the case using lower temperatures. However, the hot gas can pose a risk of thermal burns if it comes in contact with the skin during deployment and occupant interaction. Burns are most common to the arms, face and chest. These burns are often deep dermal or second-degree burns that take longer to heal and risk scarring.[citation needed]

In 1990, the first automotive fatality attributed to an airbag was reported,[29] with deaths peaking in 1997 at 53 in the United States.[citation needed] TRW produced the first gas-inflated airbag in 1994, with sensors and low-inflation-force bags becoming common soon afterwards. Dual-depth (also known as dual-stage) airbags appeared on passenger cars in 1998. By 2005, deaths related to airbags had declined, with no adult deaths and two child deaths attributed to airbags that year. Injuries remain fairly common in accidents with an airbag deployment.

Serious injuries are less common, but severe or fatal injuries can occur to vehicle occupants very near an airbag or in direct contact when it deploys. Such injuries may be sustained by unconscious drivers slumped over the steering wheel, unrestrained or improperly restrained occupants who slide forward in the seat during pre-crash braking, and properly belted drivers sitting very close to the steering wheel.

The increasing use of airbags may actually make rescue work for firefighters, emergency medical service and police officers more dangerous,[citation needed] because of the risk of deployment while the emergency responder is assisting or extracting vehicle occupants.

Improvements in sensing and gas generator technology have allowed the development of third generation airbag systems that can adjust their deployment parameters to size, weight, position and restraint status of the occupant. These improvements have demonstrated a reduced injury risk factor for small adults and children who had an increased risk of injury with first generation airbag systems.[30]

Air bag fatality statistics

From 1990 to 2008, the U.S. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration identified 175 fatalities as because of air bags. Most of these (104) have been children, while the rest are adults. About 3.3 million air bag deployments have occurred and the agency estimates more than 6,377 lives saved and countless injuries prevented.[29]

A rear-facing infant restraint put in the front seat of a vehicle places an infant's head close to the airbag, which can cause severe head injuries, or death if the airbag deploys. Some modern cars include a switch to disable the front passenger airbag, (although not in Australia, where rear-facing child seats are prohibited in the front where an airbag is fitted), in case a child-supporting seat is used there.

In vehicles with side airbags, it is dangerous for occupants to lean against the windows, doors, and pillars, or to place objects between themselves and the side of the vehicle. Articles hung from a vehicle's clothes hanger hooks can be hazardous if the vehicle's side curtain airbags deploy.[31]

 Aerospace and military applications

NASA engineers test the Mars Pathfinder airbag landing system on simulated Martian terrain

The aerospace industry and the US Government have applied airbag technologies for many years. NASA, and US DoD have incorporated airbag systems in various aircraft and spacecraft applications as early as the 1960s.

OH-58D CABS test

 Airbag landing systems

The first use of airbags for landing were Luna 9 and Luna 13, which landed on the Moon in 1966 and returned panoramic images. The Mars Pathfinder lander employed an innovative airbag landing system, supplemented with aerobraking, parachute, and solid rocket landing thrusters. This prototype successfully tested the concept, and the two Mars Exploration Rover Mission landers employed similar landing systems. The Beagle 2 Mars lander also tried to use airbags for landing, but the landing was unsuccessful for reasons which are not entirely known.

 Occupant protection

The US Army has incorporated airbags in its UH-60A/L[32][33] Black Hawk and OH-58D Kiowa Warrior[34] helicopter fleets. The Cockpit Air Bag System (CABS)[35] consists of forward and lateral airbags with an Electronic Crash Sensor Unit (ECSU). The CABS system was conceived and developed by the US Army Aviation Applied Technology Directorate, Fort Eustis, Va.[36] It is the first conventional airbag system for occupant injury prevention designed and developed specifically for helicopter applications.[37][38]